Probably you heard about the famous MVC architecture. This is a software architecture heavily used some time ago and probably still used nowadays for simpler software.
Nowadays the Client-Side (Front-end) applications are complex as the Server-Side (Back-end) applications and can have different architectures and patterns to be created on a way to support small and simple, but also large and complex applications. Because of that, the MVC architecture can be broken down, having the Visual Layer as a totally different application with its own architecture.
There are many books, courses and tutorials out there and also N types of architectures that are possible to follow. I’ll explain only one of those architectures but that has been working good for me and the projects that I’ve been working on in the last years.